Active surveillance — in which prostate cancer is regularly monitored for signs of progression — spares men whose tumors may never progress from potential treatment-associated adverse effects, such as sexual dysfunction or incontinence.

Proponents contend active surveillance is a viable option because mortality rates among men whose tumors are limited to the prostate are low, and many of these men never experience symptoms from their disease.

However, some urologic oncologists question active surveillance as a standard management strategy and contend its use should be limited.

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